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Heating and ventilation in automotive transport is not just a function of temperature control. The safety of occupants to reduce driver fatigue, ensure good visibility and maintain comfort is key to the successful design of such systems.A continual flow of air through the vehicle’s interior reduces carbon dioxide levels, acts as a demister and prevents the build-up of odours. Carbon dioxide in high concentration can cause a driver to be less responsive. There are recommended ventilation rates which specify the number of times the internal cubic capacity (air space) of the vehicle must be replaced per hour. Included in this calculation are the number of possible occu­pants and the internal volume of the vehicle. In some countries the performance of a heating and ventilation system is governed by legislation. The heating and ventilation system combined with an air-conditioning system provide a temperature range for occupants to select from. This can be a real challenge due to some extreme weather conditions experienced across the globe. Often auxiliary booster devices are required to provide additional ‘heating’ or ‘cooling’ of the interior.

The car heating system

Heat control

Air distribution through the interior of the vehicle

Forced air flow

Air filtration

Classification of heating and ventilation systems by zone

Use of an A/C system as a heat pump
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